Amblyopia, commonly known as lazy eye, occurs when there is a lack of vision in one eye because the eye and the brain are not working together. The brain may start to ignore the image from the amblyopic eye. Amblyopia normally only affects one eye - resulting in the amblyopic eye pointing away from the other appearing "lazy". It is often associated with strabismus, or crossed eyes, when an individual’s eyes appear directed toward two different points instead of one.
What Causes Lazy Eye?
Lazy eye may result from strabismus (crossed-eyes), difference in shortsightedness or longsightedness between eyes, as well as other pre-existing eye conditions, such as cataracts, ptosis (drooping of the upper eyelid), and refractive problems. Generally, when the eyes are not working together sending identical images to the brain. In cases of crossed eyes, there is one eye that is off-focus from the object the person is trying to see. The brain’s natural tendency is to ignore the off-focus image, leaving the eye that produces it underused and weak. After time, this weakened eye may remain out of position, resulting in lazy eye.
Symptoms of Lazy Eye
Amblyopia develops early, usually before age 6, and symptoms may not always be obvious. The earlier it is diagnosed and treated, the better. For this reason, it is recommended that children receive a full eye exam at six months, and again at three years. Symptoms of Lazy Eye include:
Treatment for Lazy Eye
With early diagnosis and treatment, improved sight in a lazy eye can be accomplished. However, in the worst cases, an untreated eye can be left functionally blind.
Treatments for lazy eye include:
Patching or covering the strong eye: this method forces the weaker eye to work harder, naturally strengthening its ability to move and focus
Contact lenses and eyeglasses: corrects the discrepancy of short or longsightedness between the eyes
Surgery: Realigns muscles in the eyes, a more expensive and risky option than other forms of treatment